Ponders Baptist Church - online
ready always to give an answer to every man that asks
Now you may know beyond doubt that God exists.
You may gain this knowledge by applying simple logic to well
established scientific laws and observations. The approach is
strictly secular, so that any Atheist may accept the derivation
without the emotional conflicts that arise when confronted with
references to Scripture. The simplicity of the argument makes it
accessible to anyone with an aptitude for secondary school
It is not necessary to understand statistical physics
to conclude that God exists.
We will use some of the results of physics to aid in the discussion,
but sceptics are always welcome to challenge any premise
regarding a principle of physics. We will only apply results that
are generally accepted as scientific laws.
This derivation considers the measureable part of
In any investigation, there must be a subject of the investigation.
For our purposes, we will consider the known universe. The
known universe is distinguished by its suitability for
If something material is very unique, we say it is one of a kind. If
something is not unique, we say it is common, or like the rest of its
kind. In physics, there is a characteristic of things called entropy.
Entropy was defined about 150 years ago. In simple terms and
without losing accuracy, entropy is a method of assigning a
numerical value to uniqueness. If something is unique, its entropy
is low. If something is common, its entropy is high.
A noteworthy property of entropy is that its change is always
associated with a probability. In other words, if a change in
entropy may be measured, the odds of the change occurring
spontaneously may be calculated . In general, an increase in
entropy represents a spontaneous change that is likely to occur
and a decrease in entropy represents an unlikely spontaneous
change. Everyone knows that unlikely things can happen, but
when a change exceeds expectations, we suspect that the change
was not spontaneous. When a highly unlikely change occurs, we
suspect the change was driven by an external event. Energy flow
is one example of a possible external event. Changes in thermal
energy may allow crystal formation. Changes in gravitational
energy may allow galaxy formation. Statistical laws of
spontaneous change are never broken. A common occurrence is
always more likely than a unique occurrence.
Next we consider the uniqueness of living things.
In the known universe, nothing compares to the uniqueness of
living things. Nothing comes close. In all of science there is not a
firmer foundation of observation, nor has there ever been. Life on
Earth represents the highest complexity, the highest order, and
the greatest uniqueness in the known universe. Among all
observations of science, nothing is more assured.
There are many obvious examples. Here are two:
Protein motors were discovered about 50 years ago, but few
details were known at the time of discovery. In 1985, a biological
machine called kinesin was discovered binding and transporting
organelles along microtubules in eukaryotic cells. Now we have a
greater knowledge of how these complex, microscopic machines
perform their life-essential tasks. Now we have a clue how
kinesin machines haul their organelle cargo up and down atomic
tightropes every day in every living, breathing being. To
witness even the animated simulations of kinesin activity is
enough to take a thinking person's breath away.
The synapse was discovered about 70 years ago. Planet Earth
contains approximately 400 times more human synapses than the
number of stars in the known universe. Each synapse streams,
processes, and stores information in concert with a quadrillion
other synapses in a single brain. Every brain may work
independently or in concert with other brains swapping
information. Nothing else in the universe compares in complexity
and uniqueness in terms of signal processing. Taken together,
nothing else in the universe conceives of the universe.
Let us use our brains to answer these questions:
When did the universe become aware of itself? Did that event
represent a change in the universe? Did that event represent a
common change or a unique change in the universe? Did the
entropy of the universe rise or fall with the inception of life? Can
anyone name another event in the known universe that
represents a greater change in entropy than the inception of life?
The above questions culminate with the final question (repeated
Can anyone name another event in the known universe that
represents a greater change in entropy than the inception of life?
The complete answer is, no.
A change in entropy is related to the odds of that change
The largest change in entropy represents the largest change in
The greatest decrease in entropy represents that which is least
likely to happen spontaneously. That means that all other events
are more likely.
The greatest decrease in entropy in the known universe is
represented by the inception of life.
The notion that life appeared in the universe spontaneously is the
least likely event in the known universe. All other events are more
likely. Therefore, nothing can be more certain: life did not arise
spontaneously. If life did not arise spontaneously, then life arose
by an influence beyond the universe. Since the universe is
material, that which created life is immaterial and beyond the
universe. This we know as God.
Therefore, God exists.
Common arguments against God:
1. There are events in every environment. Some are likely and
some are unlikely. That means that one event is expected to be
the most unlikely, yet it occurs.
This argument assumes that all events are spontaneous,
especially the one considered most unlikely. If the environment
has both spontaneous events and deliberate events, then the
event considered most unlikely to occur spontaneously is
properly expected to be deliberate. (Exercise: Given that railroad
bridges exist in the known universe, determine whether they
formed spontaneously. Compare the complexity of a railroad
bridge to that of a grasshopper.)
2. The first appearance of time, space and energy could be a
greater change in entropy if it could be proven that nothing
existed, then something existed.
For our purposes, this represents a transition from no universe to
universe. That is a consideration that exceeds the bounds of
scientific investigation. Here we are considering changes in
entropy or uniqueness within the known universe.
3. The expansion of the universe allows for small pockets of low
The total energy in a closed system is conserved. Remove a bit here
and the same amount shows up there. The quantity doesn't change.
Angular momentum is the same way. It is a conserved quantity.
Entropy, however, is not conserved. It follows statistical rules
and statistical rules do not conform to pockets. An event doesn't
become likely in a corner of a room where it's unlikely everywhere
There is no longer an intellectual place to hide from God.